After Research Completion and Before Writing: What to Prepare?

After you have completed your research work, your work is still far from completion. This is the final stage but still important and time consuming as writing up your research may be one of the most difficult tasks of a project. The final report should be concise, good and effective and that is a task in itself. When you start to work on your report, these are some of the general considerations that you must keep in your mind:

Your Readers:  Who is going to be the audience for your report? The content and depth of your report will vary according to the expertise and intellectual capital of your readers and the purpose with which your reader is going to be reading it. Sometimes the audience may just want a summary of results and sometimes you have to write for clearing a PhD exam. Whatever it is, keep your reader in mind.

The concept: Every research project has a major concept on which the report rests. It is a good idea to weave the concept in the form of a story for the reader to find it engrossing. This is even possible for very formal reports, where a good story line can actually lift up the interest rating of an otherwise dull and boring report. It is a very difficult proposition for a report, which otherwise is filled with facts and findings and you want to tell all those to the reader because you have done a lot of hard work for it. But, if you view the research from the perspective of the audience, you would find it better to let go of some details that may be very dear to you, and find place for them in the technical appendices or tables, if necessary.

Formatting: In the beginning itself, if you are aware and careful about the formatting considerations and guidelines of the university/journal/book for which you are doing the research, then it is easy to get your work accepted. There are examples and stories that tell us, that the best of work was rejected because of poor formatting or labeling done by the writer.

If you begin the expression of your research, in context to writing, with these aspects kept in mind, it would be easier for you to create a document that would be acceptable and appreciated by all.

Get your fundamentals of plagiarism clear

Writers and researchers around the world take opinion and ideas about their writing from existing literature and taking that as a base only helps to create a new research. So it is not new or uncommon to incorporate existing knowledge into your literature.  In fact it is imperative but still you need to be very cautious of plagiarism. So if I can include existing material in my study then what exactly do we mean by plagiarism?

Webster’s Online Dictionary defines “plagiarizing” as:

To steal and pass off (the ideas or words of another) as one’s own; use (another’s production) without crediting the source;

or

To commit literary theft; present as new and original an idea or product derived from an existing source.

 So, in simple terminology, plagiarism is that content you include in your study that does not have appropriate credits. Which further means that it is ok to repeat ideas, quotations, information, arguments in your research from other sources  but at the same time the original author needs to be given the credit for the same and if the new researcher who is using the idea refrains from doing so , he is committing the crime of plagiarism.

Plagiarism isn’t as easy to identify and locate as it exists in forms more than one.  The most extreme kind of plagiarism is using someone else’s document in complete duplication and can actually have very extreme consequences for the researcher if caught doing so. It can lead to getting fired from your job or even get sued for infringement of copyright.

The most commonly found type of plagiarism is commonly seen on the internet where people copy others ideas and change the wordings but maintain the essence of the content without actually extending the due credit to the original writer.

Another commonly found type of plagiarism is out if sheer carelessness from the side if the author where  he isn’t particular about adding citations at the proper places, not with the intention to cheat or duplicate the work but just being careless or lazy to out up the citations or references. This common error can easily be averted by being meticulous and careful every time something is written down from a source to include it in the references.

 These were the most commonly found types of plagiarism, another type though can be included too herewith. Sometimes the writer builds an entire document taking content from various sources and citing them appropriately but does not incorporate any original thoughts or ideas into it. Then again the research loses it basic nature and cannot be categorised as original research.

Some general tips on effective introductions

The effectiveness of academic writing depends primarily on good introductions and hence they demand a lot of your attention most of the time. The key components of a good introduction are identification of topic, essential context and the key focus areas of the study. In addition it should be good enough to engage the interest of your readers. Because no two essays are identical, no single formula would be able to generate the introduction we are seeking. But adhering to certain guidelines can surely help to give a suitable beginning to your writing:

General advice about introductions:

  • A lot of students get entangled in the web of creating an effective introduction and hence end up spending most of their time creating that “perfect intro”. Don’t do that and rather channelize your time and efforts better into planning and writing.
  • If you are one of those who prefers to write an introduction as the first thing, know that you may have to correct, compress or rectify it at a later stage when you have finished your document
  • It is better and easier to leave the introduction  for the last stage of the document as then you would  be able to write in primarily in the light of what you have written throughout the document
  • The size of the introduction has a relationship with the length and complexity of your document for instance a document more than 15 pages would require over two page long introduction while a 5 page document would have a half page intro. You must know and justify the length of you document.
  • Do not beat around the bush in an introduction and try to raise your topic in the very first sentence itself. Stay away from generalisations
  • The end of the introduction should be your thesis statement, even though it isn’t a thumb rule, it surely paves a good road map for you.

An interesting and effective introduction should surely include some startling statistics in context to your topic so that the seriousness of your topic is highlighted right in the beginning itself. Including some background information with a brief narrative that should exemplify the reason because of which you chose the topic. It is also a good idea to quote an expert after giving a brief introduction of him or her and mention the common misinterpretation against which your thesis will argue so that the readers become acquainted with it right in the beginning itself.

Choose Your Dissertation Topic Wisely

One of the most important choices that you would be making while doing your PhD is selecting a topic since it would determine the first piece of research that you would be carrying out.  Would you select a topic based on what you hold a passion for or would you go with the topic that your guide has selected for you? If you are confused, here is how to choose a topic for your dissertation.

Push the Envelope

You may have realized by now that new research on a particular topic should push the envelope. Make sure your topic is concise and yet specific. It should not be a repetition of what has already been researched on. It should be something that your readers should be interested in reading. It should immediately grab the attention of those who are about to read your dissertation. It should be ground-breaking research that would not have been done by anyone else before.

Interesting Theory

The theory that you propound through your research should not only be interesting, but it should also not have been done by anyone else before. Make sure your dissertation topic addresses a certain problem area and is something that can be answered by just about any research method you choose. Ideally, you should choose a topic that can be transformed into a journal, book or any other publication. However, you should also make sure that you are really interested in it.

Simplicity in Complexity

You may have gone through the works of those who have already done their  master’s dissertations and now, it is time for you to write your own research proposal. You have to ask yourself whether this work or title has been taken by someone else already or not. Moreover, your research topic should be such that it is looking to address the area that no one else has addressed before. After you have done your part by pushing the envelope, you should consider new theories and methods in order to begin your research work. This is how you should select a topic for your dissertation.

My Perspective Towards My PhD

Being in the final year of my PhD, I have been through it and seen a bit.  I wish to bring on  the table some tips on what has actually helped me along the way.

Remain open on the idea that your research would move in varied directions:  It is natural that you would devise a path for your PhD at its infancy itself but it is not wise to believe and stay adamant that it would remain on the same path through its course. What is required from your end is to allow it to evolve into a more interesting and meaningful research. The course it may take may something diverse and unthought-of before by you. Keeping a more progressive and enriched experience would provide you with the opportunities to take forward your research with newer avenues so that the thesis could be enriched and evolved in unexplored dimensions.

 Develop a good rapport with your supervisor: This is critically important.  It is so because it would increase the interest of both you and your supervisor in your project.  You of course would be giving your own idea and explanation of your project  but looking at it from your supervisors eye can  add to the depth of the study and  fine tune your research with a more critical and experienced eye. It is after all for your own benefits so do focus on it.

Use a judicious approach to plan time:   you know it, I know but still I would state it. It so happens you know when we end up spending a long span of time on an activity that could be done faster. In that process there happens a lot of deviation from where you began. It is then important to keep checking your progress from where you started and work around trying to finish the work in the stipulated time.

Bring variety in your work schedule:  If you stick on to one kind of work and drag it along there is going to be monotony in your life. If you feel that one facet of your work becomes dry and draggy, quickly transit towards another periphery.  Use all sections of your brain equally and go back to the work when you feel refreshed and energised again.

 Take out time for friends: If you get too immersed and engrossed in your PhD, it can become a very isolating journey. To be able to maintain the momentum, it is important to have some people in your life, especially those who aren’t doing their PhD. It will bring in flavours in your life that would continue to maintain the excitement and charm of your life and keep away boredom.

 Remember, it only is a PhD:  Keep a constant reminder to yourself that after all it is just a qualification. Each individual is unique, distinct and the success or failure of others should not have an impact on you.

Last but not the least, Let yourself be you and you PhD be the PhD. Do not end up becoming your PhD

Aspects of Content That Require Due Importance

Whether you are involved in writing a dissertation or a journal paper, it is important to attend to a few critical aspects of your documented content. When you pursue research, you are expected to submit a flawless paper that is well readable and presentable. Thus, here are some tips on the aspects on which you may work in order to improve your content’s appeal for target readers.

Logic

This is one of the most significant factors in your content. If your text does not show logic, then it will also lack meaningfulness to the reader. Thus, make sure to read your content after you have written the first draft. Check if your sentences and paragraphs connect well and form a story. If your content is not interlinked, work on it to make it logical and well woven. Your content should flow so smoothly that it sounds structured when it is read.

Flawless language

While your work may be structured, it may contain unintentional errors of grammar, spelling or punctuation. There may be improper word usage or incorrect sentence structure. The language styles may also be at fault. In all such cases, you should review your content multiple times so all linguistic mistakes can be corrected. Flawless language is very important to create the right impression.

Consistency

Your content may be following some prescribed professional styles, but it may have issues of consistency. It is essential to check whether you have used styles, fonts, headings, etc., in a consistent manner throughout the document. For example, it is an error if you have used a specific font style in your first data table and a different one in the second table. Thus, correct all inconsistent usages and format your work well.

Clarity

When you present ideas and arguments, you should write these clearly for your target audience. Your content should be self-explanatory and convey the desired meaning.

Things to consider while writing dissertation research methodology

Dissertation research methodology is one of the essential parts of the dissertation that can make or break the dissertation. There are a number of methods of conducting research. The research methodologies vary from one discipline to the other. Dissertation research methodology helps students and researchers in knowing tactics of conducting research. Additionally, students can justify why they used that particular method for conducting research. After doing research, it is important to write the research methodology with proper format, style, structure and layout. Students need to consider a number of things that help them in presenting their work in a well organized way.

Before applying any methodology, students should make sure that they are using the right method. There are two types of research methodologies –

  • Qualitative research methodology
  • Quantitative research methodology

Based on the type of data, students should choose appropriate research methodology. The research methodology should find out the best possible solution to the research question. Before proceeding with a particular research methodology, students and researchers should focus on why other methods are not being used for? Every methodology has its own value and significance. Dissertation research methodology is a key component of dissertation writing. Students who lack confidence in writing this chapter can opt for professional assistance.  www.chanakya-research.com is a leading firm that offers top notch consulting services for master’s as well as PhD degree.

Dissertation on Management Topics

Management education has caught the fancy of millions of students in the last decade. Students from all over the world are opting for management courses in higher educational institutions ranging from universities to professional bodies to institutes that offer degrees and diplomas in management. Given the nature of the course as well as the performance that is expected from the students, the syllabi of these courses are highly application based. Also, in order to keep up with the recent trends in higher education, students are expected to come up with a dissertation, a study that entails comprehensive research. Dissertations on topics related to management are quite market driven and mostly necessitate the knowledge of various allied subjects. This in turn makes the task even more difficult for the students, who are amateur in handling their dissertation work. Meeting deadlines for submission makes the process all the more stringent and demanding for the student as well as the guide.

Students are also supposed to have adequate knowledge of statistics in order to complete their research work successfully. However, since most students do not have such a wide skill set, they require professional help for completing a management course.

In the light of the above problems faced by a vast majority of students pursuing management studies, Chanakya Research has come up with affordable and excellent research support services in all possible domains exclusively for management students. These services have gained momentum in the recent times because of the intricate nature of work that the scholars are supposed to undertake. Management studies comprise of several specialization areas like Marketing, Finance, HR, International Business, Information Technology and others, thus offering vast variety of topics to work on.

Triangulation: a balanced approach

Triangulation is a multiple test method to arrive at a conclusion in research. You can follow one method of analysis to come to an end result. But that result may not be valid or reliable if it is not proved in more than one way. That is where triangulation comes into picture.

The biggest advantage of triangulation is that it gives varied perspective and hence a deeper view of the problem or situation under research. Multiple methods complement each other to give more information.

Having just one method for research promotes bias or preferences. In many methods of research like Quantitative, Qualitative, Interviews, Analytic, etc. bias tends to creep in which cannot be avoided. As a researcher you should be aware of it and the effects it will have on the end result. Hence it is better to follow triangulation to minimize the bias.

Some points to keep in mind while following triangulation are as follows.

  • Have two totally different methods for research. This will help in balancing out the information you gather from both the sources.
  • Organize a team to work on the project. This will give two different approaches and views making your project more complete.
  • Design a layered approach to research. Start with a broad perspective and then channel down to the actual problem or issue.
  • Have feedback built into your research method. If it means going back and re interviewing participants it should be done. Analyze the process as you go through it and make appropriate changes in the method.

Writing a Dissertation in Finance

When it is time for a student of finance to begin work on his dissertation, the first problem that he is confronted with is the topic that he has to choose. There is so much information written on financial topics every day that it is hard for him to select a subject that has not already been discussed in some detail. Unless the student wants to run the risk of submitting a rehashed version of something already published, he should think long and hard about what he wants to write about. The best way of avoiding plagiarism is to focus on a current theme, a burning issue that is making a lot of news at the moment. One might even consider writing on the way the economic environment is expected to transform in the future. While choosing the topic it is essential to review all the literature published on the chosen topic like books, web content, magazines, journals, white papers and other published dissertations. The student not only gets a lot of help with his research, but he also avoids rewriting published work.

It is a common misconception that finance is full of numbers, calculations and formulas. It is not. Yes, finance does have its fair share of mathematical work, but there is also plenty of writing to be done. It is easy for a student of finance to fall into the trap of overloading his report with numbers and formulas. While a certain amount of calculations is unavoidable, it is far more important to interpret those formulas and explain what they mean. Numbers by themselves have no meaning unless they are used in relation to something. It is in the interpretation that the use of language becomes very important. In dissertations every word and every syllable has to be used accurately to derive the right meaning.

Even a narrow topic in finance requires extensive research and study. There are many variables to be measured and several points to be looked into. It is important not to pick a topic that is too vast in scope. The student might find that he is unable to fit all the research material into the boundaries of his report. Even a simple and small question in finance might require a long answer. The student should also ensure that he explains all complex terminology and financial jargon adequately in his report.